All posts by Shakir Essa

Shakir Essa is a East Africa famous journalist, he is the first African journalist that discovered "behind the ground" program

First time in history Somalia hired on a foreigner for the top job at the central bank,

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A disquiet is simmering within the government and public circles after the leakage of information that the government had settled on a foreigner for the top job at the central bank, for the first time in the country’s history.

Sources privy to the selection process intimate that that indeed an outsider had been settled on, without divulging much on the individual. But this seems to not have gone down well with critics who argue that the country had sufficient skillset for the position.

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Those supporting the government like famous author Harun Maruf argue that it was expertise that mattered not the nationality.
money changers carry loads of low value notes in wheelbarrows on the street, Barao, Somaliland, Somalia
The revelation end speculations which have been on air since August last year as to who would replace Bashir Isse, who has been serving since April 2014. He previously held the position in interim roles from 2006 to 2010 and was reappointed in November 2013, but will now retire.

The division on opinion adds to the raft of challenges the new office holder will have to navigate to street the government banker and the economy at large to stability.

The new governor will be taking over at a time when the country is just on the verge of commencing the printing of official government banknotes for the first time in over two decades ending the long reign of counterfeit notes and unregulated monetary policy.

With footprints of two decades old civil war still visible in the country, Somali leaders have been working on means and ways to rid the country of the old counterfeit notes in place of new currency.

The new currency, is hopes, will help Somalia boost its economy. The new move to print money with security features will also prop the shilling’s value.

The new office holder will also have to impose measure to control Foreign Exchange Rate appreciation. In addition, Somalia does not have well-organized money and capital markets. The successful candidate will be tasked with steering the development of the banking and the financial system in the country.

Also in the in-tray will the task of promoting the process of economic growth and ensure adequate monetary expansion in the country.

Also to be seen is the office holders’ ability to maintain internal price stability by adopting a monetary policy that can control inflationary tendencies and ensure market stability.

The biggest challenge will be whether the CBS of Somalia will successfully integrate the traditional banking system with the mobile money economy, with over 70% of the population opting for the cashless banking method.

Critical in the implementation will be a pool of qualified staff to implement the policies. There is need for an a structured training programme and facilities that will help develop the necessary skillset of the future employees

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Southern Africa: Mozambique Bans Import of Meat From South Africa

Maputo — Mozambique has banned the import of animals and products of animal origin from South Africa, because of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the South African province of Limpopo.

According to a release from the National Veterinary Directorate of the Ministry of Agriculture, the measure has been taken to avoid the risk that Mozambicans livestock might be infected from contaminated South African animals and products.

The ban covers all cattle, goats, sheep and pigs and their products and sub-products from the entirety of South Africa. The only exceptions are products that have been completely treated to de-activate the foot-and-mouth virus, such as pasteurised dairy products, and heat processed meats.

The Mozambican authorities have guaranteed that border inspection will be stepped up to prevent South African livestock and meat from entering the country.

The foot-and-mouth outbreak in Limpopo province was reported last Monday. Since then bans on importing South African meat have been announced by Zimbabwe, Botswana, Swaziland, Namibia and now Mozambique.

The South African Department of Agriculture says that the affected areas are under quarantine, and that investigations are under way to determine the extent of the outbreak.

The World Organisation for Animal Health has temporarily suspended South Africa as a meat exporter until the area affected is confirmed as free of the disease.

 
 

Ilhan Omar Arrested in 2013 For Trespassing, Booked At Hennepin County Jail

 

State Rep. Ilhan Omar was arrested in 2013 for trespassing and booked at Hennepin County Jail “to prevent further criminal conduct,” according to a newly uncovered police report.

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The incident took place on January 18, 2013 following an event at the Minneapolis Convention Center featuring former Somali President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud. The Somali president was set to stay the night at the Hotel Ivy, causing large groups of Somalis to follow the presidential convoy to the hotel, including Omar.

According to the police report, hotel staff requested police assistance in clearing the lobby, saying that anyone without a hotel room key was not welcome on the premises and needed to leave immediately. The officer handling the incident said the majority of people who were asked to leave were compliant. However, Omar, when approached, was “argumentative” and refused to leave.

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“As she stood her ground and refused to leave I took hold of her left elbow to escort her from the lobby. Omar then pulled away from me stating, ‘Don’t put your hands on me!’ Others in her group complied and began walking toward the front entry/exit door as I ordered and I managed to coax Omar out with them,” the police report reads.

Ten minutes after the original encounter, the officer reports finding Omar seated in a different area of the lobby. According to the officer’s account, Omar “remained defiant” as he informed her that she would be arrested for trespassing if she didn’t leave.

Since she refused to comply with orders, the officer arrested Omar. The officer reached for Omar’s left arm to get her to stand so she could be handcuffed, but she pulled away. The officer handcuffed her while she stayed seated in the hotel lobby chair.

“Omar was booked at [Hennepin County Jail] as I felt it was likely that she would fail to respond to a citation and she also demonstrated that she was going to continue her criminal behavior,” the officer wrote.

View the police report below:

Ethiopia Recalls its more than 90 long serving Diplomats

Ethiopian more than 90 diplomats who have been appointed in Embassies and Consular offices of finding in different parts of the world and served between four and 25 years.

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Ethiopian Foreign Minister Spokes Person Office announced yesterday that the diplomats are expected to report to the Ministry in two months time.

Parallelly other 130 diplomatic are also assigned to embassies after having the necessary training, according to the Ministry.

As the reallocation of Embassy workers approved by the prime minister, diplomats who are working in different parts of the world will be reshuffled in recent time, said the Ministry spokesperson office.

The new appointment will be based on human resource assignment criteria which is believed to strengthen the professional skills in the ministry.

After the coming of the new leadership, the ministry has announced the reshuffle of Ambassadors.

Currently, Ethiopia maintains 43 embassies abroad as well as 47 consulates. The Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa hosts 115 embassies, and in addition, there are three consulates and one other representation in Ethiopia.

Africa-Times:# Somalia launched a legal action against Dp world to the United nationa

 

Iran shouts 7 ballistic missiles to Riyadh Saudi arabia via Houthi rebels in Yemen

  • Saudi Arabia’s missile interceptors may have “failed catastrophically” in their attempt to shoot down several missiles headed towards the its capital, Riyadh.

 

 

Saudi Arabia’s missile defenses look to have ‘failed catastrophically’ at trying to stop a large Houthi strike

yemen missile saudi arabia houthi riyadhScreenshot via Twitter/Rosie Perper
Saudi Arabia’s missile defense system intercepts several missiles fired from rebel-Houthis.
  • Saudi Arabia’s missile interceptors may have “failed catastrophically” in their attempt to shoot down several missiles headed towards the its capital, Riyadh.
  • Their failure may have resulted in three casualties in the city.
  • The recent missiles follow dozens of launches by Yemen’s Houthi rebel group in recent months.
  • The missile strikes may have deliberately coincided with the the Crown Prince’s visit to the US.

Saudi Arabia’s missile interceptors may have “failed catastrophically” in their attempt to shoot down several Yemeni missiles headed towards the capital of Riyadh.

Seven ballistic missiles launched from Yemeni rebel group Houthis were intercepted on Sunday, according to Saudi Press Agency. One person died and two others were injured from shrapnel over Riyadh, according to UAE-based English daily

#Kenyan security forces used live bullets in #somali civilians #baladxaawo

#Somalia: #Kenya security forces used live bullets on Somali civilians near border fence in Beled-hawo town, amid tension builds up in the town.FB_IMG_1521961690327

Daawo: professor Samatar, oo karbaashay mooshinka somalia, iyo arimo badan oo somaliland ku saabsan

 

 

Genel Energy may drill OIL in Somaliland

Genel Energy may drill OIL in Somaliland ,
Meanwhile, miner prepares $4bn mining venture in Zimbabwe and South Africa’s Naspers plans to sell $10.6bn worth of shares in Tencent

 

A drilling rig in the Miran block in Iraqi Kurdistan co-owned by Genel Energy and Heritage Oil. Genel may start drilling in Somaliland next year, it said. Sebastian Meye/Corbis
Kurdistan-focused Genel Energy might start drilling in Somaliland next year, chief executive Murat Ozgul said on Thursday, as the group reported 2017 results broadly in line with expectations.

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“For the long term, I really like [our] Somaliland exploration assets. It’s giving me a sense of Kurdistan 15 years ago,” Mr Ozgul said. “In 2019 we may be [starting] the drilling activities,” Reuters reported.

Chief financial officer Esa Ikaheimonen said Genel will focus spending money from its $162 million cash pile on its existing assets in Kurdistan but added: “You might see us finding opportunities … somewhere outside Kurdistan.”

The news comes as Karo Resources, a company linked to mining entrepreneur Loucas Pouroulis, said it will spend $4.2 billion on a Zimbabwean platinum project in the first big investment since President Robert Mugabe’s ousting in November, according to Bloomberg.

The deal is the largest to date in Zimbabwe’s mining industry, Mines Minister Winston Chitando said. President Emmerson Mnangagwa has declared the “country open for business” as he seeks to revive the economy and attract investment.

“It is not business as usual anymore,” the president said on Thursday. “Things have to change.

Karo’s platinum project will start up in 2020 and produce 1.4 million ounces a year of platinum-group metals at full output, potentially making it the country’s top producer by 2023, Chitando said. Zimbabwe has the second-biggest reserves of the metals after South Africa.

The project will also include a 600 megawatt power plant and coal-mining operations to feed it.

Mr Pouroulis has a long history in southern African mining. He set up South African platinum-mining ventures Lefkochrysos, which means “white gold” in Greek, and Eland Platinum. Eland was sold to Xstrata in 2007 for the equivalent of $1.1bn. His son Phoevos met Mnangagwa in the president’s office in January.

Meanwhile South Africa’s Naspers plans to sell $10.6bn worth of shares in Tencent, equivalent to 2 per cent of the technology giant’s issued stock, to fund investments in other parts of its business.

 

The sale of 190 million shares will cut the stake held by Naspers to 31.2 per cent, the Cape Town-based company said on Thursday. It’s the first time Naspers has reduced its holdings in Tencent since investing in the company in 2011.

“The funds will be used to reinforce Naspers’ balance sheet and will be invested over time to accelerate the growth of our classifieds, online food delivery and fintech businesses globally and to pursue other exciting growth opportunities when they arise,” Naspers said.

Naspers chief executive Bob Van Dijk has been trying to reduce the gap between its stake in Tencent and the value of Africa’s largest company.

Naspers gained 1.7 per cent by 11:04am in Johannesburg, while Tencent declined 5 per cent in Hong Kong.

10 important thing you need to know about the agreement between UAE and somaliland

Here are ten important things you need to know about the agreement.

The Government of the Republic of Somaliland has leased an undisclosed amount of land to the UAE in the northern part of Berbera city – close to the shores of the Gulf of Aden. The UAE will build their own port for the military base. All military equipment to arrive through the their port will be exempt from taxes.
The UAE’s military will have full access to Berbera International Airport.
The lease agreement between both countries is valid for 25 years – and will come into full effect when both governments officially sign the agreement. After 25 years, the military base and all investments made by the UAE will be taken over by the Government of the Republic of Somaliland.
The military base can not be used by any other country except the UAE and can not be sub-leased by either the Government of the Republic of Somaliland or the Government of the United Arab Emirates. The agreement also states that the military base can not be used for any other purpose outside of the agreement.
The UAE will implement the following projects in Somaliland: a modern highway between Berbera and the border town of Wajaale, a modern renovation of Berbera International Airport for civillian and cargo flights, and numerous social development projects (Education, Health, Energy & Water) for the citizens of Somaliland.
The UAE will provide job opportunities for Somaliland’s citizens during the 25-year stay. The UAE will also ease travel barriers for Somaliland’s citizens.
The UAE will provide full cooperation with the Republic Somaliland on matters relating to Somaliland’s national security. This includes: cooperation on protecting Somaliland’s waters from illegal activities at sea (piracy, waste dumping etc).
The UAE pledges to the respect the rights and independence of Somaliland’s citizens and promises to not conduct any activities that will put Somaliland’s national security at risk. The UAE also will also be fully responsible for preserving and protecting the current equipment and construction of Berbera International Airport.
The Government of the Republic of Somaliland is not responsible for any natural disaster that might affect the implementation and/or activities of the military base. In the event of a natural disaster, both governments will jointly provide necessary relief efforts.
In the event of a dispute, both governments will be given 30 days to resolve the dispute. If the dispute is not resolved within 30 days, the dispute will be arbitrated by the London Court International Arbitration (LCIA). Both Governments also have the absolute right seek a dissolution agreement. If one side does not want to dissolve the agreement, the case will be heard by the London Court of International Arbitration.

Breaking news:UAE has accepted somaliland passport

DUBAI– The United Arab Emirates has accepted citizens traveling with Somaliland passport can enter to it’s country and further allowed that the UAE can issue visas with Somaliland travel documents.

First, people who will be allowed to travel to the UAE are those holding Somaliland diplomatic passport in the first place. Second, business people are permitted to go the UAE with Somaliland passport. Third, anyone holding with Somaliland passport can travel to the UAE.

Reports confirm that this has been facilitated by FlyDubai airways which has recently started direct flights to Somaliland. This is an important diplomatic step taken in the right direction. The UAE has banned people traveling with Somali passport cannot enter into her country.

Citizens with Somaliland travel document can go to the following countries:-

1- South Africa

2- Ethiopia

3- Djibouti

4- Belgium

5- United Kingdom

6 – France

7- South Sudan

8- Kenya

Somaliland is a broke away republic that seceded from Somalia in 1991 but it has not been recognized.

Turkey, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Kenya have diplomatic office in Hargeisa.

Middle East history’s

Cradle of civilisation

Although rock art dating back to 10,000 BC lies hidden amid the desert monoliths of the Jebel Acacus in Libya, little is known about the painters or their nomadic societies, which lived on the outermost rim of the Middle East.

The enduring shift from nomadism to more-sedentary organised societies began in the fertile crescent of Mesopotamia (ancient Iraq) and the Nile River Valley of Ancient Egypt.

In about 5000 BC a culture known as Al-Ubaid first appeared in Mesopotamia. We known little about it except that its influence eventually spread down what is now the coast of the Gulf. Stone-Age artefacts have also been found in Egypt‘s Western DesertIsrael‘s Negev Desert and in the West Bank town of Jericho.

Sometime around 3100 BC the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt were unified under Menes, ushering in 3000 years of Pharaonic rule in the Nile Valley. The Levant (present-day LebanonSyria and Israel and the Palestinian Territories) was well settled by this time, and local powers included the Amorites and the Canaanites. In Mesopotamia it was the era of Sumer, which had arisen in around 4000 BC and became arguably the world’s first great civilisation.

In the late 24th and early 23rd centuries BC, Sargon of Akkad conquered much of the Levant and Mesopotamia. Other powers in the region at that time included the Hittite and Assyrian empires and, in Greece and Asia Minor, Mycenae and Troy.

By 900 BC the sophisticated Garamantes empire had arisen in Libya‘s Wadi al-Hayat, from where it controlled Saharan trade routes that connected central Africa to the Mediterranean rim. This facilitated the spread of Islam, many centuries later, along well-established livestock routes.

The 7th century BC saw both the conquest of Egypt by Assyria and far to the east, the rise of the Medes, the first of many great Persian empires. In 550 BC the Medes were conquered by Cyrus the Great, usually regarded as the first Persian shah (king). Over the next 60 years Cyrus and his successors Cambyses (r 525-522 BC) and Darius I (r 521-486 BC) swept west and north to conquer first Babylon and then EgyptAsia Minor and parts of Greece. After the Greeks stemmed the Persian tide at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC, Darius and Xerxes (r 486-466 BC) turned their attention to consolidating their empire.

Egypt won independence from the Persians in 401 BC only to be reconquered 60 years later. The second Persian occupation of Egypt was brief – little more than a decade after they arrived, the Persians were again driven out of Egypt, this time by the Greeks.

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The Hellenistic world

In 336 BC Philip II of Macedonia, a warlord who had conquered much of mainland Greece, was murdered. His son Alexander assumed the throne and began a series of conquests that would eventually encompass most of Asia Minor, the Middle East, Persia and northern India.

Under Alexander, the Greeks were the first to impose any kind of order on the Middle East as a whole. Traces of their rule ring the eastern Mediterranean from Ephesus in Turkey to the oasis of Siwa in Egypt‘s Western Desert. Perhaps the greatest remnants of Greek rule, however, lie on the outer boundaries of the former Greek empire, in the Cyrenaica region of Libya. The great cities of the Pentapolis (Five Cities), among them glorious Cyrene, bore the hallmarks of Greek sophistication and scholarship.

As important as the archaeological evidence is regarding Greek he- gemony, it’s the myths and legends – above all the Iliad and the Odyssey – and the descriptions left by historians such as Strabo, Herodotus and Pliny that present us with strong clues to the state of the Middle East 300 years before Christ and 900 years before the coming of Islam.

Upon Alexander’s death, his empire was promptly carved up among his generals. This resulted in the founding of three new ruling dynasties: the Antigonids in Greece and Asia Minor; the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt; and the Seleucids. The Seleucids controlled the swath of land running from modern Israel and Lebanon through Mesopotamia to Persia.

That’s not to say that peace reigned. Having finished off a host of lesser competitors, the heirs to Alexander’s empire then proceeded to fight each other. The area of the eastern Mediterranean splintered into an array of different local dynasties with fluctuating borders. It took an army arriving from the west to again reunite the lands of the east – this time in the shape of the legions of Rome.

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Romans & Christians

Rome‘s legionaries conquered most of Asia Minor in 188 BC, then Syria, Palestine and the North African territories of Carthage and Libya by 63 BC. When Cleopatra of Egypt, the last of the Ptolemaic dynasty, was defeated in 31 BC, the Romans controlled the entire Mediterranean world. This left the Middle East divided largely between two empires and their client states until the coming of Islam. Asia Minor, the Levant, Egypt and Libya were dominated by Rome, while the Sassanids in Persia ruled the east. Only the nomads of the desert remained independent of the great powers of the day.

While the mighty empire of Rome suffered no great external threats to its eastern Mediterranean empire, there was plenty of trouble fomenting within, most notably a succession of rebellions by the Jewish inhabitants of the Roman dominions.

In AD 331 the newly converted Emperor Constantine declared Christianity the official religion of the ‘Holy Roman Empire’, with its capital not jaded, cynical Rome but the newly renamed city of Constantinople (formerly Byzantium, later to become İstanbul).

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The coming of Islam

Constantinople reached its apogee during the reign of Justinian (AD 527-65), when the Byzantine Empire consolidated its hold on the eastern Mediterranean, while also recapturing the lost domain of Italy. Meanwhile, the Sassanid empire to the east was constantly chipping away at poorly defended Byzantine holdings, creating a fault line between the two empires running down through what we know as the Middle East.

Far to the south, in lands that were independent of the two great empires, a new force was preparing to emerge. A merchant named Mohammed, born around AD 570 in the Arabian town of Mecca (now in Saudi Arabia), had begun preaching against the pagan religion of his fellow Meccans.

Mohammed died in 632 but under his successors, known as caliphs (from the Arabic word for ‘follower’), the new religion continued its rapid spread, reaching all of Arabia by 634. LibyaEgyptSyriaand Palestine had been wrested from the Byzantines by 646, while most of IraqIran and Afghanistanwere taken from the Sassanids by 656.

Arguments over the leadership quickly arose and just 12 years after the Prophet’s death a dispute over the caliphate opened a rift in Islam that grew into today’s divide between Sunni and Shiite Muslims. Civil war broke out, ending with the rise to power of Mu’awiyah, the Muslim military governor of Syria and a distant relative of Mohammed.

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Early Islam

Mu’awiyah moved the capital from Medina to Damascus and established the first great Muslim dynasty – the Umayyads.

The Umayyads were descended from a branch of the Quraysh, the Prophet’s tribe, known more for expediency than piety. Mu’awiyah’s father was one of the last people in Mecca to embrace Islam and had long been Mohammed’s chief opponent in the city. By moving the capital to Damascus the Umayyads were symbolically declaring that they had aspirations far beyond the rather ascetic teachings of the Quran.

The Umayyads gave the Islamic world some of its greatest architectural treasures, including the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus. History, however, has not been kind, remembering them largely for the high living, corruption, nepotism and tyranny that eventually proved to be their undoing.

In 750 the Umayyads were toppled in a revolt fuelled, predictably, by accusations of impiety. Their successors, and the strong arm behind the revolt, were the Abbasids. The Abbasid caliphate created a new capital in Baghdad and the early centuries of its rule constituted what’s often regarded as the golden age of Islamic culture. The most famous of the Abbasid caliphs was Haroun ar-Rashid (r 786-809) of The Thousand and One Nights fame. Warrior king Haroun ar-Rashid led one of the most successful early Muslim invasions of Byzantium, almost reaching Constantinople. His name will forever be associated with Baghdad, which he transformed into a world centre of learning and sophistication.

After Haroun ar-Rashid’s death the empire was effectively divided between two of his sons. Predictably, civil war ensued. In 813 one son Al-Maamun emerged triumphant and reigned as caliph for the next 20 years. But Al-Maamun’s hold on power remained insecure and he felt compelled to surround himself with Turkish mercenaries.

By the middle of the 10th century the Abbasid caliphs were the prisoners of their Turkish guards, who spawned a dynasty of their own, known as the Seljuks (1038-1194). The Seljuks extended their reach throughout Persia, Central Asia, Afghanistan and Anatolia where the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum made its capital at Konya. The resulting pressure on the Byzantine Empire was intense enough to cause the emperor and the Greek Orthodox Church to swallow their pride and appeal to the rival Roman Catholic Church for help.

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The Crusades

In 1095 Pope Urban II called for a Western Christian military expedition – a ‘Crusade’ – to liberate the holy places of Jerusalem in response to the eastern empire’s alarm. Rome‘s motives were not entirely benevolent: Urban was eager to assert Rome‘s primacy in the east over Constantinople.

After linking up with the Byzantine army in 1097, the Crusaders successfully besieged Antioch (modern Antakya, in Turkey) and then marched south along the coast before turning inland, towards Jerusalem. A thousand Muslim troops held Jerusalem for six weeks against 15,000 Crusaders before the city fell on 15 July 1099. The victorious Crusaders then massacred the local population – Muslims, Jews and Christians alike – sacked the non-Christian religious sites and turned the Dome of the Rock into a church.

These successes were short-lived. It took less than 50 years for the tide to begin to turn against the Crusaders and only 200 before they were driven out of the region once and for all. The Muslim leader responsible

Somalia: The hidind history’s you will know

http://www.mercenary-wars.net

SOLDIERS OF FORTUNE

MERCENARY WARS

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Somalia

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Map source

600s  Arab tribes establish the sultanate of Adel on the Gulf of Aden coast. 

1500 – 1600  Portuguese traders land on the east coast of Africa and start intermittent power struggles with the Sultanate of Zanzibar for control of port cities and surrounding towns. 

1840  The British East India Company signs treaties with the Sultan of Tajura for unrestricted trading rights.

1860s  France acquires foothold on the Somali coast, later to become Djibouti.

1875  Egypt occupies towns on Somali coast and parts of the interior.

1887   Britain proclaims protectorate over Somaliland after reaching  a final agreement with the local King Menelik and various tribal chiefs and draws a boundary with neighbouring Ethiopia to form British Somaliland. Besides trading interests, the British protectorate serves as a counterweight to the growing Italian influence in the key port city of neighbouring Zanzibar.

1888  Anglo-French agreement defines boundary between Somali possessions of the two countries.

1889  Italy sets up a protectorate in central Somalia, later consolidated with territory in the south ceded by the sultan of Zanzibar. 

1897 – 1907  Italy makes several agreements with tribal chiefs and the British to finally mark out the boundaries of a separate Italian protectorate of Somaliland. 

1908  The Italian Government assumes direct administration of Italian Somaliland, giving the territory a colonial status. 

1925  Territory east of the Jubba river detached from Kenya to become the westernmost part of the Italian protectorate. 

1936  Following decades of expansionism, Italy captures Addis Ababa and Ethiopia to form the province of Italian East Africa. 

June 1940 Italian troops drive out the British garrison and capture British Somaliland. 

1941  British recapture British Somaliland and most of Italian Somaliland. 

1941- 1959 Meanwhile, British Somaliland sees a period of colonial development as the territory moves towards a gradual development of local institutions and self-government. 

1947  Following Italy’s defeat in World War II, Italy renounces all rights and titles to Italian Somaliland. 

1950 The U.N. General Assembly adopts a resolution making Italian Somaliland a U.N. trust territory under Italian administrative control. 

1956  Italian Somaliland renamed Somalia and granted internal autonomy. 

1960 British and Italian Somaliland gain independence and merge to form the United Republic of Somalia. 

1960 – 1969 Two successive democratically elected governments attempt to balance the expansionist interests of pro-Arab, pan-Somali factions with interests in Somali-inhabited areas of Ethiopia and Kenya, and “modernist” factions whose priorities include economic and social development. 

1963  Border dispute with Kenya, diplomatic relations with Britain broken until 1968.

1964  Border dispute with Ethiopia erupts into hostilities.

1967  Abdi Rashid Ali Shermarke beats Aden Abdullah Osman Daar in elections for president. 

October 1969 Maj. Gen. Mohamed Siad Barre seizes power in a coup. Democratically elected President Abdi Rashid Ali Shermarke is assassinated. 

1970  Siad declares Somalia a socialist nation and undertakes literacy programs and planned economic development under the principles of “scientific socialism.” 

1972 – 1977 A period of persistent border clashes with Ethiopia for control of Ethiopia’s Ogaden region, which also sees a severe drought in the region that leads to widespread starvation. 

1974 Somalia and the Soviet Union sign a treaty of friendship. Somalia also joins the Arab League. 

1974-75  Severe drought causes widespread starvation.

1977 Somalia invades the Somali-inhabited Ogaden region of Ethiopia. 

1978 Following a gradual shifting of Soviet favour from Somalia to Ethiopia and the infusions of Soviet arms and Cuban troops to Ethiopia, Somali troops are pushed out of Ethiopian territory. 

1978 – 1990 A period of growing cooperation and strategic alliance between Somalia and the West begins. The United States becomes Somalia’s chief partner in defence and several Somali military officers are trained in U.S. military schools. 

1981  Opposition to Barre’s regime begins to emerge after he excludes members of the Mijertyn and Isaq clans from government positions, which are filled with people from his own Marehan clan.

1988  Peace accord with Ethiopia.

1991 At the end of a period of growing domestic factionalism, insurgency and an open war with clans in northwest Somalia that have left the country in economic shambles and forced thousands of Somalis to flee their homes, Siad is ousted by opposition clans and forced to flee to Nigeria, where he ultimately dies.

1991  Former British protectorate of Somaliland declares unilateral independence. 

December 1992 U.S. troops lead a U.N. peacekeeping mission to Somalia, under Operation Restore Hope, which begins with the arrival of 1,800 U.S. Marines landing at night on a Mogadishu beach. The peacekeeping mission included providing humanitarian assistance to Somalis and bringing peace to the troubled country. But while the humanitarian mission is quickly achieved, the peacekeeping force finds itself dragged into Somalia’s internecine battles. 

October 1993 For the United States, Operation Restore Hope reaches its nadir when members of the U.S. Army’s elite Delta Force and the Army Rangers are used to raid warlord headquarters and abduct them. In one such raid, the U.S. forces are dropped into a Mogadishu neighbourhood to snatch two lieutenants of warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid. While the snatch and grab operation is successfully accomplished, trouble starts when two U.S. Black Hawk helicopters are shot down by rocket-propelled grenades. As U.S. Army Rangers attempt to rescue the crews of the downed helicopters, a mob of armed militiamen and angry Somalis descend on the site. A horrific carnage follows that ends only 15 hours later when a combined U.S./U.N. armoured convoy manages to reach the trapped Rangers and Delta operators. But for the world, the mission in Somalia would forever be gruesomely remembered for the 18 U.S. Army Rangers killed and footage of the exultant crowds dragging naked, mutilated bodies through the streets of Mogadishu. Despite domestic outrage, the U.S. continues to play a major role in the mission until 1994. 

1994 President Bill Clinton orders the withdrawal of the 30,000 U.S. troops on Somali soil. 

1995 Following the withdrawal of U.S. forces, the vanguard of the 21-nation Operation Restore Hope, the U.N. peacekeepers leave after an unsuccessful operation amidst charges of cruelty and even the murder of Somalis. By the end of the operation, dozens of U.N. peacekeepers were killed and hundreds of Somalis died at the hands of U.S. and U.N. forces. 

1996  Warlord Muhammad Aideed dies of his wounds and is succeeded by his son, Hussein.

1997 Following a complete administrative collapse, chiefs of some rival clans meet in the Egyptian capital of Cairo and agree to convene a conference to look into rival claims to Somalia. 

1998  Puntland region declares autonomy. 

August 2000 In the 13th such attempt to form a government, Somali warlords and militiamen meet in neighbouring Djibouti for peace talks organized by Djibouti President Omar Guellah. They elect Abdulkassim Salat Hassan president of Somalia. Hassan appoints Ali Khalif Gelayadh as his prime minister. But even as the new government attempts to start the parliamentary process in exile in Djibouti, some powerful warlords, notably Hossein Mohammed Aideed and Mohamed Ibrahim Egal do not recognize Hassan’s election. But Mogadishu’s most powerful clan leader, Ali Mahdi Mohamed, promises his support. 

October 2000 Hassan arrives in Mogadishu to a hero’s welcome and tight security. Gelayadh puts together a Cabinet of ministers, Somalia’s first government in 10 years. But Hassan’s administration has difficulty establishing control outside Mogadishu. 

March 2001 Aideed announces that he has patched up his differences with clan leaders Muse Sudi Yalahow and Osman Hassan Ali Atto and calls for a replacement of Hassan’s transitional government following a meeting between the leaders in the Kenyan capital of Nairobi. Meanwhile, opposition to Hassan has seen fighting rage on in the southern parts of the country as drought, security concerns and the criminalization of refugee camps along the Somali-Kenyan border periodically compels Kenya to halt cross-border trade, thereby further crippling the economically crumbling East African country. 

April 2001 Somali warlords, backed by Ethiopia, announce their intention to form a national government within six months, in direct opposition to the country’s transitional administration.

August 2001 UN appeals for food aid for half a million people in the drought-hit south.

August 2004 In 14th attempt since 1991 to restore central government, a new transitional parliament inaugurated at ceremony in Kenya. In October the body elects Abdullahi Yusuf as president.

December 2004 Tsunami waves generated by an undersea earthquake off Indonesia hit the Somali coast and the island of Hafun. Hundreds of deaths are reported; tens of thousands of people are displaced.

February – June 2005 Somali government begins returning home from exile in Kenya, but there are bitter divisions over where in Somalia the new parliament should sit.

November 2005 Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi survives an assassination attempt in Mogadishu. Gunmen attack his convoy, killing six people.

February 2006 Transitional parliament meets in Somalia – in the central town of Baidoa – for the first time since it was formed in Kenya in 2004.

March – May 2006 Scores of people are killed and hundreds are injured during fierce fighting between rival militias in Mogadishu. It is the worst violence in almost a decade. 

June – July 2006 Militias loyal to the Union of Islamic Courts take control of Mogadishu and other parts of the south after defeating clan warlords.

July – August 2006  Mogadishu’s air and seaports are re-opened for the first time since 1995.

September 2006  Transitional government and the Union of Islamic Courts begin peace talks in the Sudanese capital, Khartoum. Somalia’s first known suicide bombing targets President Yusuf outside parliament in Baidoa.

October 2006

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Somalia cuts ties for Saudi coalition

Middle East and AfricaSomalia

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Photo: reporter# Shakir Essa

Somali Prime Miniser Hassan Ali Khaire in Qatar (file photo).

Somalia on Wednesday broke its silence over the ongoing Qatar crisis and asked countries involved to seek dialogue.

“The Federal Republic of Somalia deeply concerned about the diplomatic row between the brotherly Arab countries” a statement from the Foreign Affairs Ministry said.

“Somalia calls to all countries involved to settle their differences through dialogue ans within the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation” it stated.

The statement further said that Somalia is ready to give a helping hand to resolve the Qatar crisis.

Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states last week cut ties with Qatar accusing it of funding terror activities in the region.

With more than 7 countries following afterwards to back Riyadh and UAE decision all eyes were on Somalia to know what move it will make.

Recently Somalia backed Saudi Arabia regarding Iran and Sweden but it took time before Somalia spoke on the Qatar crisis.

The Farmaajo administration is said to be enjoying a cordial relation with Doha.

Newly appointed Chief Of Staff Fahad Yassin has been said to be Farmaajo’s linkman to Doha with talk that the Gulf State may have partly funded his election campaign.

Qatar TV on Tuesday ran a storyon how it had financially backed Somalia over the years in what analyst as a reminder to Farmaajo not to side with Saudi Arabia.

Somalia has for a third day in a row allowed Qatar Airways to use its airspace after banning from Guf neighbors.

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