Category Archives: Middle East

Updated list of Unrecognized countries of ūüĆé

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UN member states which at least one other UN member state does not recognise Non-UN member states and observer states recognised by at least one UN member state Non-UN member states recognised by other non-UN member states only Non-UN member state not recognised by any state

A number of polities have declared independence and sought diplomatic recognition from the international communityas de jure sovereign states, but have not been universally recognised as such. These entities often have de facto control of their territory. A number of such entities have existed in the past.

There are two traditional doctrines that provide indicia of how a de jure sovereign state comes into being. The declarative theorydefines a state as a person in international law if it meets the following criteria:

  1. a defined territory
  2. a permanent population
  3. a government, and
  4. a capacity to enter into relations with other states.

According to the declarative theory, an entity’s statehood is independent of its recognition by other states. By contrast, the¬†constitutive theory¬†defines a state as a person of international law only if it is recognised as such by other states that are already a member of the international community.[1]

Proto-states¬†often reference either or both doctrines in order to legitimise their claims to statehood. There are, for example, entities which meet the declarative criteria (with¬†de facto¬†partial or complete control over their claimed territory, a government and a permanent population), but whose statehood is not recognised by any other states. Non-recognition is often a result of conflicts with other countries that claim those entities as integral parts of their territory. In other cases, two or more partially recognised states may claim the same territorial area, with each of them¬†de facto¬†in control of a portion of it (as have been the cases of the¬†Republic of China (Taiwan)¬†and the¬†People’s Republic of China (PRC), and¬†North¬†and¬†South Korea). Entities that are recognised by only a minority of the world’s states usually reference the declarative doctrine to legitimise their claims.

In many situations, international non-recognition is influenced by the presence of a foreign military force in the territory of the contested entity, making the description of the country’s¬†de facto¬†status problematic. The international community can judge this military presence too intrusive, reducing the entity to a¬†puppet state¬†where effective¬†sovereignty¬†is retained by the foreign power. Historical cases in this sense can be seen in¬†Japanese-led¬†Manchukuo¬†or the¬†German-created¬†Slovak Republic¬†and¬†Independent State of Croatia¬†before and during¬†World War II. In the 1996 case¬†Loizidou v. Turkey, the¬†European Court of Human Rights¬†judged Turkey for having exercised authority in the territory of¬†Northern Cyprus.

There are also entities which do not have control over any territory or do not unequivocally meet the declarative criteria for statehood but have been recognised to exist¬†de jure¬†as sovereign entities by at least one other state. Historically this has happened in the case of the¬†Holy See¬†(1870‚Äď1929),¬†Estonia,¬†Latvia¬†and¬†Lithuania¬†(during Soviet annexation), and more recently the¬†State of Palestine¬†at the time of its declaration of independence in 1988. The¬†Sovereign Military Order of Malta¬†is¬†currently in this position. See¬†list of governments in exile¬†for unrecognised governments without control over the territory claimed.

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There are 193 United Nations (UN) member states, while both the Holy See and the State of Palestine have observer state status in the United Nations.[2] However, some countries fulfill the declarative criteria, are recognised by the large majority of other states and are members of the United Nations, but are still included in the list here because one or more other states do not recognise their statehood, due to territorial claims or other conflicts.

Some states maintain informal (officially non-diplomatic) relations with states that do not officially recognise them. The Republic of China (Taiwan) is one such state, as it maintains unofficial relations with many other states through its Economic and Cultural Offices, which allow regular consular services. This allows the ROC to have economic relations even with states that do not formally recognise it. A total of 56 states, including Germany,[3] Italy,[4] the United States,[5] and the United Kingdom,[6] maintain some form of unofficial mission in the ROC. Kosovo,[7] the Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh),[8]the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus,[9]Abkhazia,[10] Transnistria,[10] the Sahrawi Republic,[11] Somaliland,[12] and Palestine[13]also host informal diplomatic missions, and/or maintain special delegations or other informal missions abroad.

Present geopolitical entities by level of recognition

UN member states not recognised by at least one UN member state

Name Declared Status Other claimants Further information References
 South Korea 1948 South Korea, independent since 1948, is not recognised by one UN member, North Korea.  North Koreaclaims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [14][15]
 Republic of Armenia 1991 Armenia, independent since 1991, is not recognised by one UN member, Pakistan, as Pakistan has a position of supporting Azerbaijansince the Nagorno-Karabakh War. None Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [16][17]
 Republic of Cyprus 1960 The Republic of Cyprus, independent since 1960, is not recognised by one UN member (Turkey) and one UN non-member (Northern Cyprus), due to the ongoing civil dispute over the island.  Northern Cyprusclaims part of the island of Cyprus. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [18][19][20][21]
 North Korea 1948 North Korea, independent since 1948, is not recognised by three UN members: France, Japan, South Korea; and one non-UN member: Taiwan.[22][23][24][original research?][25][26]  South Koreaclaims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [24][27][28][25][26]
¬†People’s Republic of China 1949 The People’s Republic of China (PRC), proclaimed in 1949, is the more widely recognised of the two claimant governments of “China”, the other being the¬†Republic of China¬†(ROC, also known as Taiwan). The PRC does not accept diplomatic relations with states that recognise the ROC (16¬†UN members and the¬†Holy See¬†as of 21 August 2018). Most of these states do not officially recognise the PRC as a state, though some states have established relations with the ROC while stating they do not intend to stop recognising the PRC (Kiribati, Nauru).[29][30]¬†Some states which currently recognise only the PRC have attempted simultaneous recognition and relations with the ROC and the PRC in the past (Liberia, Vanuatu).[31][32][33]¬†According to¬†United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758, the PRC is the only legitimate representative of China to the United Nations.[a] ¬†Republic of Chinaclaims to be the sole legitimate government over all of¬†China¬†under the¬†Constitution of the Republic of China.

Foreign relations, missions (of, to)


PRC’s diplomatic relations dates of establishment

[34]
 State of Israel 1948 Israel, founded in 1948, is not recognised by 31 UN members.  Syriaclaims the Golan Heights.
 Lebanonclaims Shebaa Farms.
¬†Palestineclaims areas controlled by Israel. Subject to the ongoing¬†Israeli‚ÄďPalestinian peace process¬†and broader¬†Arab-Israeli peace process.
Foreign relations, missions (of, to)


International recognition

[35][36][37][38]
[39]

UN observer states not recognised by at least one UN member state

Name Declared Status Other claimants Further information References
¬†State of Palestine 1988 The¬†Palestinian Liberation Organization(PLO)¬†declaredthe State of Palestine in 1988. At the time the Israeli Armed Forces had control of most of the proclaimed territory.[40]¬†It is¬†recognised by¬†137¬†UN member states, the Holy See,[41]and the¬†Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.[42]Today the PLC (Palestinian Legislative Council) executes the government functions in all Palestinian territories outside of Israeli military-controlled zones. Prior to the Council’s administration, the¬†Palestinian National Authority(PNA) was established in 1994 according to the¬†Oslo Accords¬†and the¬†Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement.[b]Palestine participates in the¬†United Nations¬†as¬†an observer state,[43]¬†and has membership in the¬†Arab League, the¬†Organisation of Islamic Cooperationand¬†UNESCO.[44]¬†It was accorded non-member observer state status at the United Nations by¬†United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/19. ¬†Israeldoes not recognise the state of Palestine and controls areas claimed by Palestine.[b]Subject to the ongoing¬†Israeli‚ÄďPalestinian peace process+
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Ethiopia bloodshed at least 88 were killed

Africa Times: At least 88 people were killed during a weekend of ethnic violence in Ethiopia’s capital, an Amnesty International researcher told AFP on Wednesday, citing a figure more than double the government estimate of 23 dead.

Another source involved in the investigation, who saw and counted the corpses, told AFP a total of 88 people had been killed, mostly in the city’s western suburbs.

“The 65 cases are from Burayu, Ashewa Meda, Kolfe and Kirkos,” said the source on condition of anonymity, referring to three western areas and one in the centre.

The victims were either stabbed or died after being beaten with sticks and rocks. None had been shot and the toll does not include five alleged looters killed by police on Monday.

Fisseha Tekle, a Nairobi-based researcher with Amnesty International, said he had compiled a similar tally of 58 dead.

Residents told Amnesty International they saw “eight dead bodies on Friday, 21 on Saturday, on Sunday they saw about 11 people and on Monday the number of dead bodies they’ve seen were 18,” Fisseha said.

Government spokesperson could not immediately be reached for comment.

The violence began last week in the run-up to Saturday’s return of the once-banned Oromo Liberation Front, a rebel group that returned to Ethiopia following political reforms introduced by Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed.

Qatari Tribes writes to Human Rights Commissioner on Violation of Human Rights

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Qatar comes under scrutiny when the United Nations High Commissioner of Human Rights received a letter on Monday regarding discrimination from the Qatari Regime. The tribe is not just a small group but rather a well known, powerful and large tribe residing in Qatar.

The Al Ghurfan tribe filed an official complaint to the Arab Federation For Human Rights and requested the federation to refer the complaint to UN Human Rights council about the violations committed by the Qatar regime against its very own members.

The tribe then approached the UN to charge the Qatari Authorities with Human Rights violation because they have been subject to torture, racial discrimination, treated as prisoners, put to death and even denied of their rights to Qatari citizenship and denied to return their homeland when they travelled outside.

The tribe ( Al Ghurfan clan ) have substantial proof of such arbitrary acts to more than 54 members of their tribes. The members of the clan claimed they started facing such treatment ever since they opposed the Qatari regime’s destabilising policies and in relation to the dispute between Qatar’s neighbouring states. They estimate this behaviour from the Qatari authorities to

Qatari authorities had revoked citizenship of another tribe called the Al Murrah tribe, while 6000 members of Al Ghurfan were forcibly displaced, confiscated properties, called for systematic persecution against all clans that belonged to larger tribes such as senior members of the Shaml al-Hawajer tribe and famous poet Mohammed al-Marri belonging to the al-Murrah tribe, majority of the members were deprived of national rights.

The delegation that is representing the tribe has said ‚ÄúThrough your unique mandate to promote and protect human rights, we ask your esteemed commission to see and stand up to the suffering of our citizens who have been deprived of their citizenship in Qatar and to the crimes committed against them and to alleviate the conditions and suffering of our displaced people in the villages and deserts of border areas in neighboring countries‚ÄĚ

Support from neighbours

Hearing the case of the Al Ghorfan Clan, EOHR also known as the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights announced solidarity in regards to their case and said that the Al Ghorfan tribe makes up about 40 percent of the people of Qatar and are indigenous to the country.

EOHR stated that they believe in universality of human rights principles and need to establish and maintain those rights in the Arab region. With the country’s support they addressed the letter to United Nations High Commissioner the President of the Arab Federation informed the commission to protect the members of the tribes and pursued to restore their lost rights and punish the Qatari regime for the misconduct with their own citizens.

The Tribe received support from the World Aid Organization in New York when they adopted their case and declared their solidarity with the tribe;s case.

The World Aid Organization collectively sought to raise the awareness of the international community and shoulder the tribe with humanitarian support and that it will follow up with them on the status .

The Head of the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights, Hafez Abu Seada ‚ÄúThe Egyptian Organization calls upon the High Commissioner for Human Rights, her excellency Mrs. Michel Bachelet, to open an extensive investigation into this tragedy. EOHR also calls upon Mrs. Bachelet to assist it in its efforts to restore the rights of the clan of Al Ghofran as indigenous inhabitants who have been robbed of their nationalities and forcefully displaced enmasse for political reasons, in violation of all international human rights instruments. Finally EOHR expresses its readiness to provide any documents or evidence that the honorable Commission may need in any of the efforts we hope it will take to stop the suffering of the people of forgiveness.‚ÄĚ

Dating back to 2017…

The matter on deprivation of unfair detention and unscrupulous behaviours towards tribes was the agenda of the conference held by Qataris that were exiled in London, September. At that time the tribe called on the United Nations Commissioner’s Office and tried to regain their rights.

The tribe described their ordeals to the High Commission and requested them to stand up against the suffering of the citizens who were denied the right to their own homeland and that they would alleviate the conditions of suffering and help them regain their displaced villages.

The requested the council to not only resolve the matter at hand but also create a path where people of the clan did not fear the government and tolerate oppression in silence to protect their parents, relatives back home in Qatar.

The tribe at that time also said the National Human Rights Commission of Qatar was doing more harm then good and becoming an obstacle in receiving justice as the commission of Qatar mostly covers up evidence and spreads false information

Djibouti ‚ÄėShocked‚Äô By Somalia‚Äôs Position on Eritrea Sanctions

Djibouti ‚ÄėShocked‚Äô By Somalia‚Äôs Position on Eritrea Sanctions
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africatimes| August 1, 2018

Djibouti has formally responded to a recent call by Somalia that United Nations Security Council (UNSC) sanctions on Eritrea be lifted. According to Djibouti it was ‚Äėdeeply shocked‚Äô by that position.

Somali president Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed on a three-day official visit to Asmara said the sanctions imposed since 2009 had to be lifted given the current political and diplomatic developments in the Horn of Africa region.

But in a statement in reaction to the Somali president’s view, the Djiboutian Embassy in Somalia wrote in an August 1, 2018 statement:

… it is unacceptable to see our brotherly Somalia supporting Eritrea which is occupying part of our territory and still denying having Djiboutian prisonsers.

‚ÄúAs a sovereign state, there is no doubt that Somalia has the right to establish diplomatic relations with the countries of the region, however, it is unacceptable to see our brotherly Somalia supporting Eritrea which is occupying part of our territory and still denying having Djiboutian prisonsers.‚ÄĚ

It continued that the wiser line of action would have been for President Mohamed to call for peaceful resolution of the border crisis that has strained relations between the two neighbours.

The statement accused Somalia of historic less support of Djibouti which it said had led to blinded supported for Eritrea plus an advocacy that Eritrea be free despite its stubborn nature.

‚ÄúWe will not tolerate with ruthless talks while our young men and women are yet here defending Somalia‚Äôs peace and stability,‚ÄĚ the statement concluded.

Eritrea’s 2009 UN sanctions, Gulf crisis and Doumeira impasse

An arms embargo imposed on Eritrea since 2009 was chiefly to do with its alleged support for Somali insurgent group Al-Shabaab but also because of its agression against Djibouti and refusal to enter any form of mediation over the disputed regions.

The disputed land in question is the Dumeira mountain and Dumeira island which Djibouti claims is being illegally occupied by Eritrea. The issue of Eritrea’s continued holding of Djiboutian prisoners has also been central to the dispute.

The last time tensions between the two came to the fore was in June 2017 when Qatar withdrew its peacekeeping force in the area at the height of the Gulf Crisis. Djibouti at the time accused Asmara of deploying soldiers to the disputed areas.

Djibouti ‘shocked’ by Somalia’s position on Eritrea sanctions

Eritrea has been in the news recently over the peace deal it entered into with neighbouring Ethiopia after two decades of severed ties and hostility over a border ruling. Addis Ababa through PM Abiy accepted to respect the 2002 border ruling and by that agreed to restore all ties with Eritrea.

Abiy signed a five-point end of war agreement with Eritrean leader Isaias Afwerki during a historic visit to Asmara. Afwerki reciprocated the gesture with a three-day visit to Addis Ababa.

Source: http://www.africanews.com/2018/08/01/djibouti-shocked-by-somalia-s-position-on-eritrea-sanctions/

Ethiopia’s state of emergency could destabilise the Horn of Africa

Former Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn sent shock waves through the region when he abruptly tendered his resignation.

Desalegn said that he had made the decision to facilitate efforts towards political reforms which started with the release of political prisoners. But rather than pursue a reform agenda, the Ethiopian government followed his announcement by declaring a state of emergency. This not only jeopardises the regime’s apparent intent to institute democratic reforms, it also pits citizens against the security forces. And it’s already led to more violence, not stability.

The state of emergency is being defied in a number of regions. Citizens have protested in Gondar, which is in the opposition Amhara region, as well as the opposition stronghold of Nekemte which is in Oromia. Much of the Oromia region is also defying the emergency measures.

As a result, the regime has targeted the Oromia region, and its protesting youths who are collectively known as Qeerro in the Oromo language.

Despite the release of thousands of political prisoners and talk of reforms, the political climate remains more uncertain than ever. It’s now feared that any government measures to suppress ensuing chaos could result in more violence, and deaths.

Instability in Ethiopia could have repercussions across the region. Unrest in the country could have a domino effect in what is an already volatile part of the continent. It could also affect regional peace efforts because instability in one corner of the Horn of Africa could spread and destabilise the entire region. This is especially the case because Ethiopia is home to so many cross border communities.

Implications for the region
Ethiopia is influential in the region and across the continent. It is the second most populous country in Africa and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. It also hosts the African Union’s headquarters in its capital, Addis Ababa.

But its standing has been diminished by the political turmoil of the last few years when two of its largest ethnic groups, the Oromo and Amhara both started demanding political and economic equality. The ruling coalition’s responses to these demands has highlighted the fact that it isn’t committed to democratisation.

The risks for the region are significant. Unless the regime acts on political reforms to entrench democracy, equal distribution of resources and freedom of the press, Ethiopia ‚Äď with more than 100 million citizens ‚Äď could emerge as the largest politically unstable nation in an already volatile region.

An unstable Ethiopia could also affect peace efforts in neighbouring countries. For example, it’s role as a long standing mediator in the South Sudanese peace talks could suffer a setback.

And its army is also the only peacekeeping force in Abiye, an oil rich region that has been at the centre of the conflict between Sudan and South Sudan since 2011.

In addition, Ethiopia is second only to Bangladesh in the number of its troops involved in international peacekeeping. Across its South Eastern borders, it also maintains thousands of troops inside Somalia.

And although its role in Somalia has drawn criticism Ethiopia remains a critical ally to the US’s counter terrorism strategy in the region. Instability could also create a power vacuum that could affect the US-led anti-terror strategy.

Ultimately, an internal crisis in Ethiopia will affect the power balance with its arch rival Eritrea. After the Ethiopia-Eritrea war which ended in 2000, the two countries have remained engaged in a proxy war by supporting each others’ political opposition groups.

Cross-border communities
Most African states share cross-border societies. The Horn of Africa is no different. The Oromo for instance are a majority ethnic group in Ethiopia and also a minority in Kenya. The Nuer are South Sudan’s second largest ethnic group and also a minority in Ethiopia’s western Gambella region.

There are also Somalis in Ethiopia. They m

10 important thing you need to know about the agreement between UAE and somaliland

Here are ten important things you need to know about the agreement.

The Government of the Republic of Somaliland has leased an undisclosed amount of land to the UAE in the northern part of Berbera city ‚Äď close to the shores of the Gulf of Aden. The UAE will build their own port for the military base. All military equipment to arrive through the their port will be exempt from taxes.
The UAE’s military will have full access to Berbera International Airport.
The lease agreement between both countries is valid for 25 years ‚Äď and will come into full effect when both governments officially sign the agreement. After 25 years, the military base and all investments made by the UAE will be taken over by the Government of the Republic of Somaliland.
The military base can not be used by any other country except the UAE and can not be sub-leased by either the Government of the Republic of Somaliland or the Government of the United Arab Emirates. The agreement also states that the military base can not be used for any other purpose outside of the agreement.
The UAE will implement the following projects in Somaliland: a modern highway between Berbera and the border town of Wajaale, a modern renovation of Berbera International Airport for civillian and cargo flights, and numerous social development projects (Education, Health, Energy & Water) for the citizens of Somaliland.
The UAE will provide job opportunities for Somaliland’s citizens during the 25-year stay. The UAE will also ease travel barriers for Somaliland’s citizens.
The UAE will provide full cooperation with the Republic Somaliland on matters relating to Somaliland’s national security. This includes: cooperation on protecting Somaliland’s waters from illegal activities at sea (piracy, waste dumping etc).
The UAE pledges to the respect the rights and independence of Somaliland’s citizens and promises to not conduct any activities that will put Somaliland’s national security at risk. The UAE also will also be fully responsible for preserving and protecting the current equipment and construction of Berbera International Airport.
The Government of the Republic of Somaliland is not responsible for any natural disaster that might affect the implementation and/or activities of the military base. In the event of a natural disaster, both governments will jointly provide necessary relief efforts.
In the event of a dispute, both governments will be given 30 days to resolve the dispute. If the dispute is not resolved within 30 days, the dispute will be arbitrated by the London Court International Arbitration (LCIA). Both Governments also have the absolute right seek a dissolution agreement. If one side does not want to dissolve the agreement, the case will be heard by the London Court of International Arbitration.

Emirates to train Somaliland Air forces, army Forces

UAE to Train Somaliland Forces Under Military Base Deal:
Somaliland President

ABU DHABI ‚ÄĒ The United Arab Emirates (UAE) will train Somaliland security forces as part of a deal to establish a military base in the semi-autonomous region, Somaliland’s president said on Thursday.

UAE government officials could not immediately be reached for comment Рbut the UAE has committed to invest hundreds of million dollars in recent years in the territory on a strategically important stretch of coastline on the Gulf of Aden.

The UAE began construction last year of a base on a site at the airport of the Somaliland port city Berbera, and will be allowed to maintain a presence for 30 years. Berbera is less than 300 km (190 miles) south of war-torn Yemen, where UAE troops are fighting rebels as part of a Saudi-backed coalition.

President Muse Bihi Abdi said the UAE would train police and military in Somaliland, which wants independence from war-torn Somalia but is not recognized internationally. He said he expected the agreement to be finalised within two months

“They have the resources and the knowledge,” Abdi told Reuters in an interview in Abu Dhabi.

UAE has become more assertive in its foreign policy in recent years. The UAE Armed Forces have been fighting in the Yemen conflict since 2015 and in the past deployed in international operations including Kosovo and Afghanistan.

Abdi said the military base, which he expects will be completed this year, will guarantee economic development and security for Somaliland and act as a deterrent to extremist groups in the region.

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Somaliland’s Foreign Minister, Saad Ali Shire, who was present during the interview, declined to disclose how many UAE soldiers would be stationed at the base.

“POLITICAL MISTAKE”

Several regional powers have set up military bases along the Horn of Africa coastline, including Turkey in Somalia’s capital. The¬†United States, China, Japan and France all have bases in neighboring Djibouti.

“It’s safer to have a lot of military in the area,” Abdi said.

Abdi said he hoped UAE investments, including a new civilian airport and a road connecting Berbera to landlocked Ethiopia, will lead to a “huge creation of employment” in Somaliland where unemployment is rampant.

“The biggest threat to Somaliland is poverty,” he said.

Dubai’s DP World is also developing Berbera port and building a free trade zone nearby.

This week, Somalia’s parliament voted to ban DP World from the country, an act that it said had nullified the agreement.

Abdi said the vote was a “joke” and a “political mistake” that would have no impact on the DP World agreement that includes the government of Ethiopia

Somaliland broke away from Somalia in 1991 and has acted as a de-facto state since then..

Abdi also said he expected the UAE would make a hard currency deposit into Somaliland’s central bank but added that there had been no agreement between the two sides.

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(Reporting by Alexander Cornwell; Editing by Maggie Fick and Andrew Heaven

Shakir Essa