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Africa political map dramatically changed

LIST OF COUNTRIES IN AFRICA

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African Country Capital City Population
 Algeria Algiers 39,667,203
 Angola Luanda 25,326,755
 Benin Porto-Novo 10,782,365
 Botswana Gaborone 2,176,741
 Burkina Faso Ouagadougou 18,450,347
 Burundi Bujumbura 9,824,320
 Cameroon Yaoundé 21,918,057
 Cape Verde Praia 525,662
 Central African Republic Bangui 4,900,413
 Chad N’Djamena 13,675,741
 Comoros Moroni 783,544
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa 77,267,269
 Djibouti Djibouti 961,037
 Egypt Cairo 88,523,985
 Equatorial Guinea Malabo 1,996,227
 Eritrea Asmara 6,895,222
 Ethiopia Addis Ababa 99,391,145
 Gabon Libreville 1,873,230
 Gambia Banjul 2,022,474
 Ghana Accra 27,414,682
 Guinea Conakry 10,935,259
 Guinea-Bissau Bissau 1,788,088
 Ivory Coast Abidjan, Yamoussoukro 23,126,355
 Kenya Nairobi 45,533,204
 Lesotho Maseru 1,908,335
 Liberia Monrovia 4,046,007
 Libya Tripoli 6,278,522
 Madagascar Antananarivo 23,043,955
 Malawi Lilongwe 16,307,685
 Mali Bamako 17,796,125
 Mauritania Nouakchott 3,632,657
 Mauritius Port Louis 1,263,916
 Morocco Rabat 34,380,277
 Mozambique Maputo 28,013,037
 Namibia Windhoek 2,281,238
 Niger Niamey 18,880,785
 Nigeria Abuja 182,202,652
 Republic of the Congo Brazzaville 4,706,257
 Rwanda Kigali 11,324,426
 São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé 194,000
 Senegal Dakar 14,150,852
 Seychelles Victoria 970,457
 Sierra Leone Freetown 6,513,357
 Somalia

Somaliland

Mogadishu

Hargeisa

9,972,148

5,320,123

 South Africa Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Pretoria 5,495,724
 South Sudan Juba 12,519,321
 Sudan Khartoum 40,235,712
 Swaziland Mbabane 1,119,524
 Tanzania Dodoma 51,046,045
 Togo Lomé 7,065,418
 Tunisia Tunis 11,118,759
 Uganda Kampala 37,102,024
 Zambia Lusaka 15,474,644
 Zimbabwe Harare 13,503,963
Total 1,125,307,147
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Author: Shakir Essa
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Ethiopia’s state of emergency could destabilise the Horn of Africa

Former Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn sent shock waves through the region when he abruptly tendered his resignation.

Desalegn said that he had made the decision to facilitate efforts towards political reforms which started with the release of political prisoners. But rather than pursue a reform agenda, the Ethiopian government followed his announcement by declaring a state of emergency. This not only jeopardises the regime’s apparent intent to institute democratic reforms, it also pits citizens against the security forces. And it’s already led to more violence, not stability.

The state of emergency is being defied in a number of regions. Citizens have protested in Gondar, which is in the opposition Amhara region, as well as the opposition stronghold of Nekemte which is in Oromia. Much of the Oromia region is also defying the emergency measures.

As a result, the regime has targeted the Oromia region, and its protesting youths who are collectively known as Qeerro in the Oromo language.

Despite the release of thousands of political prisoners and talk of reforms, the political climate remains more uncertain than ever. It’s now feared that any government measures to suppress ensuing chaos could result in more violence, and deaths.

Instability in Ethiopia could have repercussions across the region. Unrest in the country could have a domino effect in what is an already volatile part of the continent. It could also affect regional peace efforts because instability in one corner of the Horn of Africa could spread and destabilise the entire region. This is especially the case because Ethiopia is home to so many cross border communities.

Implications for the region
Ethiopia is influential in the region and across the continent. It is the second most populous country in Africa and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. It also hosts the African Union’s headquarters in its capital, Addis Ababa.

But its standing has been diminished by the political turmoil of the last few years when two of its largest ethnic groups, the Oromo and Amhara both started demanding political and economic equality. The ruling coalition’s responses to these demands has highlighted the fact that it isn’t committed to democratisation.

The risks for the region are significant. Unless the regime acts on political reforms to entrench democracy, equal distribution of resources and freedom of the press, Ethiopia – with more than 100 million citizens – could emerge as the largest politically unstable nation in an already volatile region.

An unstable Ethiopia could also affect peace efforts in neighbouring countries. For example, it’s role as a long standing mediator in the South Sudanese peace talks could suffer a setback.

And its army is also the only peacekeeping force in Abiye, an oil rich region that has been at the centre of the conflict between Sudan and South Sudan since 2011.

In addition, Ethiopia is second only to Bangladesh in the number of its troops involved in international peacekeeping. Across its South Eastern borders, it also maintains thousands of troops inside Somalia.

And although its role in Somalia has drawn criticism Ethiopia remains a critical ally to the US’s counter terrorism strategy in the region. Instability could also create a power vacuum that could affect the US-led anti-terror strategy.

Ultimately, an internal crisis in Ethiopia will affect the power balance with its arch rival Eritrea. After the Ethiopia-Eritrea war which ended in 2000, the two countries have remained engaged in a proxy war by supporting each others’ political opposition groups.

Cross-border communities
Most African states share cross-border societies. The Horn of Africa is no different. The Oromo for instance are a majority ethnic group in Ethiopia and also a minority in Kenya. The Nuer are South Sudan’s second largest ethnic group and also a minority in Ethiopia’s western Gambella region.

There are also Somalis in Ethiopia. They m