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A TIMELINE OF THE BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY 

A TIMELINE OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY IN NIGERIA

(afrika-times.com) It started as a largely peaceful religious movement in northern Nigeria. But the violent rhetoric was never inconspicuous. Yet, the government didn’t pay much attention to Boko Haram. Until 2009, when the group’s leader, Mohammed Yusuf, was murdered while in police custody, setting off an inexorable chain of violent events that has threatened the very existence of the Nigerian state. Twelve years later, thousands have died and hundreds of thousands more have been displaced or remain in captivity. Yet, the insurgency is far from over. Here is a timeline of events of Nigeria’s never-ending conflict:

2002: Mohammed Yusuf founds Boko Haram, a group with the aim to ‘purify’ Islam in Northern Nigeria. (Afrika-Times.com)

Photo file: Boko Haram fighters in Nigeria

July 2009: Yusuf is killed in a Boko Haram uprising while in police custody.

7 September 2010: Boko Haram members launch an attack on a federal prison in Bauchi, freeing up to 721 prisoners, including up to 150 affiliated with the group.

16 June 2011: A suicide bomber drives a car bomb into the Nigeria Police Force headquarters in Abuja and kills up to six people. 

Timeline of the Boko Haram insurgency -  
 It started as a largely peaceful religious movement in northern Nigeria. But the violent rhetoric was never inconspicuous. Yet, the government didn’t pay much attention to Boko Haram. Until 2009, when the group’s leader, Mohammed Yusuf, was murdered while in police custody, setting off an inexorable chain of violent events that has threatened the very existence of the Nigerian state. Twelve years later, thousands have died and hundreds of thousands more have been displaced or remain in captivity. Yet, the insurgency is far from over. Here is a timeline of events of Nigeria’s never-ending conflict:
Photo file: Boko Haram Timeline in Nigeria in Borno State

26 August 2011: A car bomb explodes at a United Nations building in Abuja, killing at least 21 and wounding 60. 

25 December 2011: A series of bomb attacks on Christmas Day kills about 40 people and injures many others.

31 December 2011: President Goodluck Jonathan declares a state of emergency in parts of the North-East and orders the borders with Cameroon, Chad and Niger shut.

8 January 2012: President Jonathan says Boko Haram members have infiltrated his government, including the military and police.

20 January 2012: At least 178 people are killed after Boko Haram executed a series of bomb blasts and shooting sprees mostly targeting police stations in Kano.

11 October 2012: Human Rights Watch accuses Nigerian security forces of gross human rights abuses in the fight against Boko Haram.

14 May 2013: President Jonathan extends the state of emergency to cover Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states.

11 August 2013: Boko Haram kills 44 worshipers at a mosque in Konduga, Borno. 

November 2013: The United States designates Boko Haram as a terrorist organisation.

26 February 2014: Boko Haram murders at least 59 boys at the Federal Government College in Buni Yadi, Yobe state.

14-15 April 2014: About 276 female students are kidnapped from Government Girls Secondary School at the town of Chibok in Borno State.

May 2014: The United Nations’ Security Council adds Boko Haram to its financial sanctions and arms embargo list.

29 October 2014: Boko Haram seizes the Adamawa town of Mubi, forcing thousands to flee. 

January 2015: Boko Haram seizes a Nigerian military base in Baga, a key town in Borno state.

February 2015: Nigeria postpones presidential elections for six weeks as a coalition of military forces including those from Chad, Cameroon and Nigeria begin a campaign against Boko Haram.

March 2015: The Nigerian army recovers Bama from Boko Haram, halting the group’s incursion. 

March 2015: Shekau pledges allegiance to the Islamic State.

March 2015: Forces from neighbouring Niger and Chad launch a ground and air offensive against Boko Haram in Borno.

March 2015: President Muhammadu Buhari wins presidential election after campaigning, in part, to end the insurgency.

May 2015: Boko Haram renames itself the Islamic State’s West Africa Province (ISWAP)

9 September 2015: The Nigerian military says it has destroyed all known Boko Haram terrorists’ camps and cells in the North-East.

17 November 2015: The Global Terrorism Index reported that Boko Haram – after killing 6,644 people in 2014 – had overtaken Isis as the world’s deadliest terror group.

December 2015: President Muhammadu Buhari says Nigeria has “technically won the war” against Boko Haram because the group can no longer mount “conventional attacks.”

22 June 2016: Reports from US intelligence emerge of a split between Abubakar Shekau and ISIS over the use of children as suicide bombers.

August 2016: ISIS attempts to oust Shekau from his leadership role and replace him with Abu Musab al-Barnawi, apparently for his refusal to cease targeting muslim civilians.

17 January 2017: The Nigerian Air Force bombs an IDP camp in Rann, Borno after mistaking it for a Boko Haram camp, killing scores of civilians.

In this photo taken on April 14, 2021, the names of some of the Chibok girls still in captivity are displayed on desks in commemoration of the seven years anniversary since they were abducted by Boko Haram in Borno State.

15 February 2018: The Nigerian army places a N3 million bounty on Shekau.

19 February 2018: 110 schoolgirls are abducted from the Government Technical Girls College in Dapchi, Yobe State.

December 2018: Boko Haram splinter group ISWAP takes over Baga and seizes the Multinational Joint Task Force base, two months before presidential elections in Nigeria.

22 March 2019: Boko Haram kills at least 23 Chadian soldiers.

16 June 2019: At least 30 people are killed in a triple suicide attack in Konduga, Borno.

9 February 2020: About 30 travellers are burnt to death while sleeping in their vehicles during an overnight stop on the A3 road in Borno.

23 March 2020: At least 50 Nigerians soldiers are killed in an ambush by Boko Haram near Goneri village in Borno.

28 November, 2020: At least 110 farmers are killed in Zabarmari, Borno.

11 December 2020: Over 330 students from the Government Science Secondary School in Kankara, Katsina state, are abducted.

23 February 2021: Boko Haram kills 10 people in Maiduguri using rocket-propelled grenades.

14 April 2021: US places $7 million bounty on Abubakar Shekau.

20 May 2021: Abubakar Shekau is reported dead.

June 2021: Boko Haram and ISWAP reportedly unite and pledge allegiance to one Aba Ibrahim Al-Hashimiyil AlKhuraishi.

22 July 2021: Nigeria receives the first batch of A-29 Super Tucano aircrafts procured from the United States of America to prosecute the insurgency and other criminal elements

A TIMELINE OF THE BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY 

Shakir Essa is a Digital Media Publisher, News broadcaster, Author and Political Analyser
Shakir Essa

“Digital News Publisher,broadcaster, Author and Political Analyser

— shakir essa

A timeline of the US withdrawal and Taliban recapture of Afghanistan

US troops in Tora Bora Afghanistan

(Afrika-times.com) Just weeks ahead of the planned pullout of American troops, the American flag at the U.S. embassy in Kabul had been taken down and most embassy staff had been relocated to the city’s airport.  The chaotic reports emerging from Kabul cap more than two decades of American efforts in the country to root out terrorism and transform the nation into a functioning democratic state.

Baradar is one of four men, including Mullah Omar, who founded the Taliban movement in 1994 [Screenshot Al Jazeera]

Thousands of American lives and nearly $830 billion in official spending, those efforts have resulted in failure.  

How Afghanistan, a country that has been torn by conflict for decades, arrived at this place is a long and arduous journey. 

The founder of Taliban Mullah Mohamed Omer

Explained with maps and graphics  Here is a timeline of Afghanistan’s more late 20th century, what led to the U.S. invasion in the first place, through the most recent action there: 

U.S. Army Soldiers with the Kandahar Provincial Reconstruction Team security force climb down from their positions during a site assessment of the Dowry Rud check dam in Spin Boldak district, Kandahar, Afghanistan, on Nov. 19, 2011. Senior Airman Sean Martin, U.S. Air Force. Released

April 1979: In the Saur Revolution, or April Coup, the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan assassinates Afghan President Mohammed Daoud Khan. 

December 1979: Soviets invaded Afghanistan in order to prop up the government, which faced internal rebellion. 

Early 1989: As the Soviet Union disintegrated, the army withdrew, leaving the Afghan forces to take the lead in fighting an American-funded insurgency. US intelligence estimates over 15,000 Soviet troops died in the decade-long war. The Soviets kept advisers with the Afghans and continued financing the military. 

U.S. Army Soldiers with the Kandahar Provincial Reconstruction Team security force climb down from their positions during a site assessment of the Dowry Rud check dam in Spin Boldak district, Kandahar, Afghanistan, on Nov. 19, 2011. Senior Airman Sean Martin, U.S. Air Force. Released

1992: The American CIA, which backed Afghan rebel groups, withdrew its aid. The Russians also cut its funding. The pro-Russian government was overthrown, and Afghanistan was plunged into a bloody civil war, setting the stage for the Taliban to assume power four years later.

 1994: The Taliban, or “students” in the Pashto language, emerges from Islamist fighters in Pakistan and Afghanistan who fought against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan for over a decade. That conflict ended in 1989. 

1996: After a two-year civil war, most of Afghanistan comes under the control of the Taliban, who institute fundamentalist policies and widespread repression of human rights. 

Aug 15 (Reuters) – Taliban insurgents began entering Kabul on Sunday after taking control of all of Afghanistan’s major cities apart from the capital.

Following are some of the major milestones in the Islamist militant movement’s advance in recent months. Other deadly attacks occurred, some blamed on the Taliban and some on other jihadist groups including an offshoot of Islamic State.

Talks between the Taliban and the Afghan government on a political understanding that could lead to a peace deal, backed by the United States and its allies, have failed to make significant progress.

US troops in Tora Bora: The Battle of Tora Bora was a military engagement that took place in the cave complex of Tora Bora, eastern Afghanistan, from December 6–17, 2001, during the opening stages of the United States invasion of Afghanistan

– April 14 – President Joe Biden announces U.S. troops will withdraw from Afghanistan starting on May 1 and ending on Sept. 11, bringing America’s longest war to a close. It was an extension of the previous withdrawal deadline of May 1 agreed between the United States and the Taliban.Report ad

– May 4 – Taliban fighters launch a major offensive on Afghan forces in southern Helmand province. They also attack in at least six other provinces.

– May 11 – The Taliban capture Nerkh district just outside the capital Kabul as violence intensifies across the country.

– June 7 – Senior government officials say more than 150 Afghan soldiers are killed in 24 hours as fighting worsens. They add that fighting is raging in 26 of the country’s 34 provinces.

– June 22 – Taliban fighters launch a series of attacks in the north of the country, far from their traditional strongholds in the south. The UN envoy for Afghanistan says they have taken more than 50 of 370 districts.Report ad

– July 2 – American troops quietly pull out of their main military base in Afghanistan – Bagram Air Base, an hour’s drive from Kabul. It effectively ends U.S. involvement in the war.

– July 5 – The Taliban say they could present a written peace proposal to the Afghan government as soon as August.

– July 21 – Taliban insurgents control about a half of the country’s districts, according to the senior U.S. general, underlining the scale and speed of their advance.

– July 25 – The United States vows to continue to support Afghan troops “in the coming weeks” with intensified airstrikes to help them counter Taliban attacks

In this file photo taken on November 28, 2019, US President Donald Trump speaks to the troops during a surprise Thanksgiving day visit at Bagram Air Field in Afghanistan.

– July 26 – The United Nations says nearly 2,400 Afghan civilians were killed or wounded in May and June in escalating violence, the highest number for those months since records started in 2009.

– Aug. 6 – Zaranj in the south of the country becomes the first provincial capital to fall to the Taliban in years. Many more are to follow in the ensuing days, including the prized city of Kunduz in the north.

– Aug. 13 – Four more provincial capitals fall in a day, including Kandahar, the country’s second city and spiritual home of the Taliban. In the west, another key city, Herat, is overrun and veteran commander Mohammad Ismail Khan, one of the leading fighters against the Taliban, is captured.

– Aug. 14 – The Taliban take the major northern city of Mazar-i-Sharif and, with little resistance, Pul-e-Alam, capital of Logar province just 70 km (40 miles) south of Kabul. The United States sends more troops to help evacuate its civilians from Kabul as Afghan President Ashraf Ghani says he is consulting with local and international partners

U.S. Army Soldiers with the Kandahar Provincial Reconstruction Team security force climb down from their positions during a site assessment of the Dowry Rud check dam in Spin Boldak district, Kandahar, Afghanistan, on Nov. 19, 2011. Senior Airman Sean Martin, U.S. Air Force. Released

– Aug. 15 – The Taliban take the key eastern city of Jalalabad without a fight, effectively surrounding Kabul.

– Aug. 15 – Taliban insurgents enter Kabul, an interior ministry official says, as the United States evacuate diplomats from its embassy by helicopter.